Water Treatment Plants : A Comprehensive Guide to Ensuring Water Quality during Builder to Society Handover


The handover process from a builder to a residential society is a crucial phase that requires a thorough audit to ensure that all aspects of the property are well-maintained and up to standard. One such critical aspect is the quality of water supplied to the residents. In this in-depth blog post, we’ll discuss the importance of Water Treatment Plants (WTP) during the handover process, and how to ensure that your society gets the best possible water quality. We will also explore the specific parameters to monitor, the different types of WTPs, and their maintenance requirements.

The Role of Water Treatment Plants in Residential Societies

Water Treatment Plants play a vital role in providing clean and safe water to the residents of a society. They remove impurities and contaminants, such as bacteria, viruses, heavy metals, and other dissolved solids, from various water sources like borewell, tanker, or even municipal supplies. A properly functioning WTP ensures that the water is safe for drinking, cooking, and other household uses.

Types of Water Treatment Plants

There are several types of WTPs that can be installed in residential societies, depending on the specific water quality issues faced by the residents. These include:

Physical Treatment Plants: These plants primarily use physical processes like sedimentation, filtration, and flotation to remove impurities and suspended solids from the water.
Chemical Treatment Plants: Chemical processes like chlorination, coagulation, and flocculation are employed in these plants to remove contaminants, including bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms.
Biological Treatment Plants: These plants use biological processes such as activated sludge or trickling filters to remove organic pollutants and dissolved solids from the water.
Desalination Plants: These plants are designed to remove salts and other dissolved solids from saline water sources, such as seawater or brackish groundwater.

Key Parameters to Monitor in Water Quality

During the handover process, it is essential to assess the quality of water and the performance of the WTP. Some critical parameters to monitor include:

Turbidity: Turbidity refers to the cloudiness or haziness of water caused by suspended particles. High turbidity can interfere with the effectiveness of disinfection processes and may also affect the aesthetic quality of water.

pH level: The pH level is a measure of how acidic or alkaline the water is. The ideal pH range for drinking water is between 6.5 and 8.5. Extreme pH levels can cause corrosion of pipes, affect the taste of water, and may also have health implications.

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): TDS is a measure of the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances in water, including minerals, salts, and metals. High TDS levels can affect the taste of water and may also lead to scaling in pipes and appliances.

Heavy metals (e.g., lead, arsenic, and mercury): Heavy metals are toxic elements that can contaminate water sources due to industrial activities, agricultural runoff, or natural geological processes. Exposure to high levels of heavy metals can have severe health effects.

Microbiological contaminants (e.g., E. coli and coliform bacteria): These microorganisms can cause waterborne diseases and pose a significant risk to public health. It is essential to ensure that the WTP effectively removes or inactivates these pathogens.

It is recommended that water quality tests be conducted at least once every six months. However, in areas with fragmented aquifers, it may be necessary to test more frequently to ensure consistent water quality.

Maintenance and Calibration of Water Treatment Plants

Regular maintenance and calibration of WTPs are essential to ensure their optimal performance and the safety of the water being supplied. Maintenance includes regular cleaning of filters, replacing worn-out parts, and monitoring the performance of the treatment processes.

Calibration is necessary to ensure that the WTP sensors are functioning accurately. This process may require skilled technicians and can be costly, but it is essential to maintain the efficiency of the treatment plant.

Questions to Ask the Builder during the Handover Process

When taking over the WTP, it is crucial to ask the builder for relevant documentation, including:

  1. The most recent six months’ water quality reports
  2. A detailed report on the design and purpose of the WTP, including the specific treatment processes employed
  3. A feasibility report, similar to those provided for Sewage Treatment Plants (STP), outlining the rationale for the WTP’s design

While the government does not mandate WTPs, it is now a common feature in most residential societies, ensuring that the water provided to residents is safe and of high quality.

The Cost of Maintaining a Water Treatment Plant

The cost of maintaining a WTP depends on various factors, such as the type of plant, the specific water quality issues being addressed, and the volume of water being treated daily. For example, the cost of maintaining a water softener will vary based on the hardness of the water being treated. Maintenance costs typically involve the cost of consumables like salt, replacement parts, and labor charges.



Ensuring water quality during the society-builder handover process is crucial for the health and well-being of the residents. By understanding the different types of Water Treatment Plants, the key parameters to monitor, and the maintenance requirements, society members can make informed decisions and hold the builder accountable for providing safe, clean water.

In a world where water scarcity and contamination are becoming increasingly prevalent, it is essential for residential societies to take the necessary steps to safeguard their water supply. By conducting regular audits, maintaining WTPs, and staying informed about water quality issues, residents can contribute to a healthier and more sustainable future for themselves and their communities.